World Bank SDI Report - SDI Implementation (in a Developing Country Context)

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This article is a part of World Bank SDI Report.

Contents

Introduction

Previous chapters have introduced the basic ideas and concepts of SDI and considered a range of existing SDI examples from the global community. This chapter discusses SDI implementation, in particular from the perspective of those who have the experience of SDI implementation in developing countries.

As part of the wider World Bank project, four case study reports on SDI development were commissioned with the objective of obtaining a range of experience applicable to SDI users/developers from developing countries. Two best practice reports were commissioned for SDI development, in South Korea and Brazil, which detailed the historical and current status of SDI development and two reports conducted detailing technical assistance requirements for SDI development in Uganda and Jordan. It is the content of these reports that forms the foundation and substantive content of this chapter.

The chapter begins with an introduction to each of the case study countries and an outline of their SDI development status. Full reports on country context and SDI development for each of the countries, Korea, Brazil, Uganda and Jordan, can be found in Annexes A, B, C and D, respectively.

Case Studies

Korea

A country's entry level into SDI and the speed and efficiency by which SDI can be pursued will typically depend on the economic status, culture and politics of that specific society. This is true of Korea where a number of issues concerning SDI development are inextricably linked to Korean society itself. Since the institution of the Korean NSDI in 1995, South Korea has experienced rapid economic growth evolving it from being a recipient of international aid to an economically developed and technically advanced country. Strategic efforts with advanced IT technologies have considerably contributed to this growth.

Historical, Economic and Social Background

Since the 1950s South Korea has experienced war, gradual but steady national recovery, remarkable economic growth, and accession to membership of the OECD (Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development). In 1999 Korea became a member of the G20 (Group of Twenty Finance Ministers and Central Bank Governors) as one of the world's major economic powers. Despite the country's economic achievements the Republic of Korea continues to face political conflict with North Korea whilst seeking unification.

Historical Background

After the surrender of Japan on 15 August 1945, marking the end of World War II in the Pacific, a socialist regime was established in the North, while in the Republic of Korea, a Western-style republic was established. The two parts of the Korean nation - democratic South Korea and communist North Korea - still had internal conflicts including insurgency threats and subversion problems for the next 5 years. During the Korean War (1950–1953) millions of civilians died and the three years of war thoroughly destroyed most cities. The Korean Peninsula remains divided and the Korean Demilitarized Zone constitutes the de facto border between North and South Korea.

Economic Background

Since the 1960st he South Korean economy has grown enormously and the economic structure radically transformed. In 1995, South Korea's GNI (Gross National Income) per capita had reached $11,471 and South Korea became a member of the OECD the following year. A little over a decade later, in 2007, in spite of a dramatic decrease to $7,477 due to an economic crisis in 1997-1998, its GNI per capita reached $20,015[1]. This rapid economic growth and development changed many aspects of South Korean lifestyle, both socially and culturally.

Social Background

The population growth rate has over the last several years fallen although and population levels continued to rise[2]. With increased urbanization and industrialization, social problems have increased. In order to solve various problems, improve quality of life, and ensure public safety, social infrastructure has become more important and efficient management is required.

With considerable advances in IT technologies, South Korea's shift to a post-industrialized economy has already made considerable progress towards a more knowledge-based economy.

Governmental Background: The National GIS Project as a NSDI in Korea

In 1995, two large gas explosions took place in Korea. The accidents coincided with the turning point of the South Korean economy, in which its GNI per capita first exceeded $10,000. The first-phase National GIS implementation plan was initiated just after the two explosions. The accidents and the proposed mitigation measures (heavily reliant on GIS) captured public attention which saw the necessity for GIS for this kind of infrastructural management: By using GIS for underground facilities management such accidents could be prevented as well as the economic and social benefits GIS might afford to the Republic.

With the cooperation of many local governments, academia and industry, the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) has undertaken a 4-phase comprehensive National GIS implementation plan. The four phases are:

  • Phase 1 (1995-2000): "Digitalization of spatial data"
  • Phase 2 (2001-2005): "Implementation of Korean Digital Land"
  • Phase 3 (2006-2010): "Infrastructure for the Implementation of Korean Ubiquitous Land"
  • Phase 4 (2011-2015): "Implementation of Korean Green Geospatial Society"

The evolution of the 4-phase development plan (up to Phase 3) is summarized in Table 4.1

By Phase 3 of the implementation plan, a large amount of the budget had already been invested. By 2008 (half way through the third phase) a total of 3 billion Korean won (~ $1M) had been invested from public funding. Covering both the national and local level, the highest percentage of the budget was invested in the creation and management of geospatial data and applications.

E-government and NSDI

Korean e-government initiatives were started by the Ministry of Public Administration and Home Affairs (now Ministry of Public Administration and Security (MOPAS)) in 2001 with the Korean e-government one-stop portal being officially opened October 2002. Subsequent projects between 2002 and 2007, demonstrated innovation on behalf of the Korean government in e-government initiatives. Since 2007, Korea has been evaluated to be a world leader in e-government initiatives by the UN. Under the master plan for the next generation of e-government (established in 2007) a significant effort was made for the integration of spatial data and administrative data. Via the Korean e-government portal citizens now have access to the spatial data of several government agencies.

Through the Korean e–government development process, the integration and linkage of Korean e-government and NSDI between MOPAS and the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) has become a priority. Korean e-government is an important channel through which to drive the SDI agenda. The National Integrated (Spatial) Information System (NIIS) project launched in 2008 by MLTM and MOPAS is a good example[3] as is the project for administrative spatial information systems by MOPAS.


Domain The 1st phase NGIS The 2nd phase NGIS The 3rd phase NGIS
Goal Focus on digitalization of spatial data to establish GIS infrastructure in order to promote to national competitiveness and productivity Focus on a wider using GI for building a digital land Focus on the Infrastructure of the Implementation of Korean Ubiquitous Land:
Data Creation of a digital topographic map, cadastral map, Digital thematic map, parcel-address map, administrative boundary map, road map, current land use map, national land zoning map, and urban planning map Fundamental data including administrative district, transportation, marine and water resources, etc

National /marine base map, National geodetic control point, national imagery DB

Application GIS application for underground facility GIS application for underground facility , land use, environment, agriculture, marine Linkage and integration of individual GIS application systems, 3D spatial information, UPIS, KOPSS, BIM etc.
Standard Developments of several standards including standard for national base map, underground facility map, Developments of standards for exchange of spatial data Developments of several standards including standard for framework, data, construction, distribution and application for NGIS Re-establishment of framework data standard, Developments of advanced several standards, Modification and supplementation of existing standards
Technology Mapping technology, DB Tool, GIS S/W technology 3D GIS, high resolution RS technology Intelligent land informationization based on GIS technology and developed new software for the future information-oriented society.
Human
resource
IT labor markets promotion project, Offline GIS education Online and Offline GIS education, Development of educational program and educational textbook Online and Offline GIS education, Update of educational program and educational textbook
Clearing
house
Pilot project for National spatial clearing house Project for National spatial clearing house 70m datasets in 139 categories available Advancement Project for management of National spatial clearing house
Research Research for NGIS Research for NGIS in mid and long term policy project Research for NGIS in changing environments

Table 4.1Summary of 4-Phase National GIS Implementation plan (up to Phase 3)


Introduction and development of Ubiquitous Technology

With advances in ICT and communication networks, Korea is in the process of introducing and developing 'ubiquitous' technologies. In 2006, the basic plan for u-KOREA (ubiquitous-KOREA), which is currently working on action plans, was established to achieve the world's first ubiquitous society. Ubiquitous IT, or 'u-IT', is the idea that all objects have computing power allowing use of and access to web-based and electronic services anytime and anywhere through web-based networking. Characterized by the term's 'real', 'connected', 'invisible', and 'calm', u-IT enables intelligent services through context understanding, space convergence services, real-time site services and invisible services[4]. Korean nationwide ubiquitous city projects at central and local government level are particularly well established[5]. For the ubiquitous city, spatial data becomes extremely crucial for better ubiquitous service provision.

Brazil

Historical context

The adoption of GIS in Brazil began in the mid-1980s. The transition from pure GIS projects to a broader view that led to SDI is however, hard to pinpoint. Due to the number of government institutions involved in GIS since its adoption, some SDI aspects were also present. Despite an 'ad hoc' approach to adoption of SDI in Brazil, there are a set of leading institutions which played an important role in pioneering GIS technologies. These early adopters combined R&D in spatial information with the production and dissemination of spatial data. They formed a collaborative network that was instrumental to ensure that such a large country could benefit from spatial information technologies. The network was successful because it combined expertise in different areas of spatial information technology. The Brazilian GIS early adopters viewed knowledge as a public consumption good (Dasgupta and David 1994) and openly spread their experience and their results. These adopters have helped to avoid the "lock-in" effects associated with the introduction of information technologies in transitional economies (Arthur 1994; Mowery 1996)[6]. In Brazil, associating public diffusion of innovation with locally developed no-cost and open source software enabled many institutions to avoid being locked-in to a particular vendor's solution. For instance, an indicator of the reduction on the "lock-in" effect is the fact that companies offering services based on open source software form 15% of the service provider market (Magalhaes and Granemman 2005)[7].

Among the many participants in the development of the Brazilian SDI were three key groups originating from three different sectors of the economy, each with varying missions. The first, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) of the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research, is a major research institute funded by the federal government[8]. The second, PRODABEL (Empresa de Informática e Informação do Município de Belo Horizonte S/A – Information and Informatics Company of the City of Belo Horizonte), is an information technology company owned by local government which has one of the most successful urban GIS projects in Brazil (Borges and Sahay 2000; Davis Jr. and Fonseca 2006)[9]. And thirdly, FatorGIS, and later, its spin-off MundoGeo, which are today, the most important media companies with a focus on GIS in Brazil[10]. Each represents an important facet of GIS in Brazilian GIS. INPE brings a strong research and technology agenda and resources; PRODABEL is application-driven and is where the research and technology developed at INPE is often applied; and FatorGIS and MundoGeo act as places where these two worlds can meet, share and communicate their GIS experiences.

During the 1980s, the Brazilian Government adopted a "market reserve" policy with the objective of protecting the local information technology industry,. For eight years, there were strong government economic incentives to produce local information technology (IT) hardware. The 'market reserve' law provided a powerful incentive for local development of GIS and Remote Sensing Image Processing technology.

Besides INPE, PRODABEL and FatorGIS, Unicamp, Embrapa, and TecGraf played a significant role in fostering the adoption of spatial information technology. These 'early adopters' worked together in many projects and created significant links which were fundamental for the successful implementation of SDI in Brazil. For instance, from 1994-97, Unicamp led a multi-million dollar cooperative project in Geoinformatics with INPE, CPqD, Embrapa, and PUC-Rio (Câmara, Freitas et al. 1994; Câmara, Casanova et al. 1996)[11]. Embrapa has since developed joint work with INPE focusing on spatial analysis and modelling applied to agriculture (Assad and Sano 1998)[12] and with Unicamp focusing on interoperability and semantics (Fileto, Medeiros et al. 2003)[13].

One strategy of the early adopters was to support initiatives for interaction with other groups interested in GIS in Brazil. The adopters had an active role in pursing partnerships with groups in various disciplines that had an interest in spatial technologies. These included research groups in different areas: (a) spatial epidemiology in partnership with the National School for Public Health; (b) social exclusion in partnership with the Catholic University of São Paulo; (c) crime analysis in partnership with the Federal University of Minas Gerais.

A second strategy of INPE was to avoid merely cloning existing software and instead seeking out new solutions. For this reason, the design of the SPRING system (completed in 1991) was based on integrating remote sensing and GIS with an object-oriented data model (Câmara, Souza et al. 1996)[14]. At the time, the concepts of object-oriented modelling were new in GIS, and the part of the success of SPRING can be traced to its use of what was then an innovative technology and also to the fact that remote sensing imagery is an essential component of most geospatial applications in large countries such as Brazil.

Brazil has been largely successful in setting up qualified institutions that produce and distribute spatial data. The collaborative network of early adopters was instrumental in ensuring that such a large and diverse country could benefit from the widespread adoption of spatial information technologies.

All the groups that comprised the network of innovators in Brazil had a primary background in information technology, rather than mapmaking. GIS and SDI are disruptive technologies which need a new culture to be effectively used. The Brazilian experience shows that it is questionable if institutions with deep-rooted cultures such as most national mapping agencies can be fully successful in setting up SDI without undergoing major internal changes.

Country overview

Brazil is larger than the continental U.S. and almost twice the size of the European Union. Its climate ranges from equatorial to subtropical, with most of the country classified as tropical. There are also semi-arid and temperate areas. The diverse topography leads to regional microclimates in some parts of the country. Vegetation varies from the equatorial rainforests in the North to temperate coniferous forests in the southern states and savannahs in the central highlands. The country's mountain ranges are relatively modest in height (the highest point in the territory reaches just under 3,000m) and the country is virtually free of the effects of volcanoes and earthquakes. Brazil is divided into five geographic regions, each of which is composed of states with similar cultural, social, economic and historical backgrounds. There are 26 states as well as the Federal District and over 5,500 municipalities.

Demographics

Brazil's population is 193 million (mid-2010 IBGE estimate)[15] who are unequally distributed across the country. The south-eastern region is the most densely populated (38% of the population over 77 people/km2), while the northern region is the most sparsely populated (under 4 people/km2). More than 84% of the population lives in cities, the largest being São Paulo (almost 20 million in the metropolitan area). Other large cities include Rio de Janeiro, Salvador, Brasília (the country's capital), Fortaleza and Belo Horizonte.

Economy

The Brazilian gross domestic product (GDP) reached US$1.978 trillion in 2008, ranking 9th in the world (The World Bank 2010)[16]. Per-capita income reached US$7,300 in 2008 (The World Bank 2009)[17]. The country's Human Development Index (HDI) reached 0.813 in 2007 (UNDP 2010)[18], ranking 75th worldwide, among countries with high human development. Income distribution is quite uneven, although inequality has been slowly decreasing throughout the last decade.

Brazil's economy is structured around services (65.3% of the GDP), with significant industrial (28.0%) and agricultural (6.7%) sectors.

Brazil is the world's largest producer of sugar cane, coffee, beans and oranges, the second largest of soybeans, tobacco and beef. Large-volume agricultural exports include soya, chicken meat, beef, coffee, sugar, tobacco, corn, orange juice, pork and cotton. Major food imports include wheat, rice and malt (FAO 2010)[19]. Brazil is the second largest producer of iron ore, manganese, and aluminium and is self-sufficient in petroleum. Recently discovered deep sea reserves may transform the country into a major oil exporter. The mining sector is responsible for approximately 5.8% of the GDP, excluding oil and gas (IBRAM 2010). Agriculture and mining are clearly important industrial sectors in Brazil, which, given the relevance of spatial data to these industrial sectors, highlights the potential importance of SDI development to the economy and economic growth.

The Brazilian energy matrix has a large share of renewable sources. In 2009, 47.2% of the supply came from hydropower and biofuels, while non-renewable sources accounted for the remaining 52.8%, most of it (46.7%) from petroleum and natural gas (MME 2010). In 2009 84% of the light vehicles manufactured in the country had "flex fuel" engines, which operate on any mixture of gasoline and ethanol (ANFAVEA 2010)[20].

Information Technology

In 2008, there were approximately 9.6 million land-based broadband Internet connections in Brazil. The annual growth in 2008 was 29% (MC 2010)[21]. Access is uneven - in the Northeast and North regions broadband reaches respectively 4% and 13% of the households. Whilst in the South and Southeast these figures improve significantly to 21% and 24%. The federal government has recently issued a plan to disseminate broadband Internet access throughout the country by 201 (Ibid.). The goals include reaching 30 million landline broadband connections for homes and businesses, and to reach 100% of government installations with broadband connections, including 100,000 new federal call-centres. There is also the goal to achieve 60 million mobile broadband connections. Currently, over 64 million Brazilians connect regularly to the Internet, and Brazilian users rank amongst those with the highest online time (over 30 hours per month) (Ibid.).

Uganda

Uganda is a constitutional republic of 112 districts and a National Assembly of 332 seats and 13 ex-officio members who serve five-year terms. It is a land-locked country lying on the equator in eastern Africa. It shares borders with Sudan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Tanzania and Kenya. The total area is 241,038 square kilometres. The climate is tropical. Uganda's population is ~33 million (2010), 87% rural, with a growth rate of 3.5% (2009). GDP is $1,220 per capita (World Bank, 2009)[22]. Uganda has significant natural resources, including ample fertile land, regular rainfall, and mineral deposits.

Geo-information is an essential resource in addressing poverty, health issues, environmental degradation and poor infrastructure. The need for spatial information was clearly recognized at the United Nations Convention on Environment and Development (UNCED) conference in Rio de Janiero in 1992, where it was stated that geographic data is fundamental in addressing global environmental issues [23]. Uganda is now party to many international agreements concerning issues including Biodiversity, Climate Change (Kyoto Protocol), Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection and Wetlands.

The Government of Uganda has recognised the benefits of a national SDI (NSDI) and mandated the National Planning Authority (NPA) to guide its development. The main task of NPA, as defined by its mandate, is to manage national and decentralized development planning in Uganda through a participatory approach, with decision-making being shared by all stakeholders. This requires institutional structures that are vertically and horizontally oriented, so that information (spatial data) and decision-making can be easily shared in order to overcome bottlenecks in the development planning process. A NSDI strategy for improving spatial data sharing has been proposed. This strategy is designed based on the visions and goals, institutional arrangements, data issues, network services, indicative financial requirements, human resource requirements, awareness and communication issues, indicative implementation programs and other matters as may be agreed with the Uganda Government and other national/international stakeholders.

Jordan

Geographic Information Systems were introduced in Jordan from the mid-1980's when the Royal Jordanian Geographic Centre, Greater Amman Municipality and the Department of Lands and Survey pioneered the introduction of GIS into their operations. GIS adoption increased within governmental institutions through the 1990's as part of various donor projects. Two user groups were established during this period with the goal to foster cooperation between various agencies and introduce national standards but have since ceased to exist.

In 2006, the Ministry of Information and Communications Technologies commissioned a National GIS Strategy. This was laid out as part of an assessment report published in the same year. The findings of the report are summarized in Table 4.2[24].

A ministerial committee was established to assist the study team in directing this effort. The final report of the study constituted a milestone and a solid base for Jordan in its plans to establish a national SDI. However, given the state of stagnation since the creation of the Strategy, there is now a need to update, build on and continue that effort.

Institutional Settings Human Resources GIS or Geo-Spatial Data GIS Technology Infrastructure
National Direction & Coordination: "Institutional & organizational framework is not well defined" A rich human resource base High Cost of data collection and acquisition A National GIS Infrastructure: "No national GIS Infrastructure, agency wide networked GIS operations were not evident"
Critical Policy Issues : "A need to address issues related to data pricing, access, standardization and distributions" Continuing education & training: "Public sectors budgets for training are limited" A need for Geo-National Data Standard Web-enabled GIS:
"Limited to couple of agencies
National GIS Data Providers: RJGC & DLS Staff retention:  Wage rates of the public sector do not reflect the broader labor market realities for qualified GIS personnel A need for a National GIS Data Model Broadband is needed: "National Broadband network is being developed"
GIS Project to Program Transformation: "GIS projects through donors in some instances failed to be sustained once projects were completed" GIS Human resource recruitment and advancement in public sector: "Governmental recruitment is centralized and with limited involvement of the line organizations" A National Geo-Referencing Data Base Program: "National programs that supply basic geo-referenced data are inadequate because data is not accurate or available" Evidence of Software Piracy: "Anecdotal evidence of software piracy within user communities  was found"
GIS is "Nested" in one branch of the organization: "GIS units are nested within one technical department instead of being an organizational resource supporting multiple applications"   Metadata: "Public sector agencies do not have comprehensive metadata for either internal or external use"  
Role of private sector: "Need to define and establish public private partnerships"      

Table 4.2: Summary of BearingPoint's current GIS status in Jordan 2006


Implementation Issues

Policy Context and legislative framework

Policy issues in Korea are complex. Successful implementation of a National SDI depends on effective policy and partnership. Policies need to impact on SDI driving forces, building fundamental data, GIS applications, technology, access, standards and education.

The consensus among Korean GIS experts is that the successful achievement of the South Korean SDI has resulted from the strong drive by the central government, i.e. a top-down approach[25]. It is recognised that there are both top-down and bottom-up approaches for building spatial data infrastructures. In general, while a traditional top down SDI is defined as a one enshrined in a national policy and producer driven, bottom up SDI are be driven by the user. Also, these differences can be defined by levels of SDI hierarchy, i.e. national SDI, provincial SDI and local SDI. In Korea, attempts to update and manage digital data and the development of some GIS applications were the result of a top-down approach by matching funds with local governments in Korea.

Despite obvious benefits, top-down approaches can present certain challenges, such as lack of horizontal partnerships, less willingness for data sharing and weak voluntary participation. There is also less coordination among various leading organizations in every domain and project.

Thus, harmonization of top-down and bottom-up approaches has become more important in Korea. The necessity of the combined approach to move toward demand-driven, cooperative, data open policy and linkage & integration, open, sharing and participation is demonstrated in Table 4.3. With recent Web 2.0 trends, "open", "sharing" and "participation" have become key concepts.

The Government of South Korea intends to open its geospatial information as much as possible which will provide an opportunity for the private sector to play a leading role in the processing and distribution of geospatial information. According to the 4th NGIS Plan (MLTM, 2010)[26], a new concept of "Neogeography" will move the current NSDI direction toward a new data governance policy with private partnerships. Under the "Green Korea" vision there will be a focus on intelligence, integration, interoperability, governance and easy access to spatial information, offering a new "everywhere, everybody," SDI policy.

The Korean model, that is a shift from a top down to a more integrated top down/bottom up overall approach, would be beneficial for developing countries. Whilst a top down approach is somewhat inevitable for successful SDI, particularly in the early stages, the Korean experience has shown that user driven bottom up SDI becomes more important with time.

Stage Top-down Approach Bottom-up Approach
In the early stages Focus on standards,
partnerships
and law, policy and institutional arrangements
Focus on creation of GIS applications
and data construction
In the later stages Focus on access and metadata Focus on data updates

Table 4.3 Comparison of top-down and bottom-up approaches

Having considered the general tenets of top-down approaches in the context of the Korean SDI, the finer details of how a top-down policy approach to national SDI development might look in practice can now be considered through the example of the Brazilian SDI. This section will also outline the legislative framework for the Brazilian SDI.

The current SDI policy situation in Brazil is defined by a recent executive order (Decreto No. 6.666, de 27 de novembro de 2008). The Order defined and created INDE (Infraestrutura Nacional de Dados Espaciais), the Brazilian NSDI. It corresponds to the American National Spatial Data Infrastructure andto the European INSPIRE.

As required by the executive order, an action plan has been created for the development and dissemination of INDE (CONCAR 2010)[27]. The plan follows the traditional definition of a SDI, along the lines set forth by the American Federal Geographic Data Committee, which states that SDIs consist not only of available data and technological tools, but which also involve people, policies and standards. More specifically, the plan defines INDE's objectives as creating metadata catalogues, integrating and sharing geospatial data created and maintained by different Brazilian government institutions so that the data is easily found, browsed, and used through the Internet. It states clearly that the data and metadata are to be created and maintained by their original producers.

INDE is being implemented under the supervision of CONCAR (Comissão Nacional de Cartografia), the Brazilian National Committee of Cartography, which is under the Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management (MPOG, Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão). IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics) is the executive institution that technically and administratively supports CONCAR. IBGE is responsible for creating, implementing and maintaining the SIG Brasil Web geoportal, which should provide access to all of INDE's geospatial data and services. The portal will host the central data catalogue, which is called Diretório Brasileiro de Dados Geoespaciais (DBDG). Data should be free to any registered user.

Under the Executive Order, the sharing of geospatial data was made mandatory for all departments and agencies of the Federal government. INDE establishes a safeguard for classified information, as determined by the Brazilian government. INDE initially has control only of data originated by Federal departments and agencies, but state and local government initiatives are taking place in parallel, some predating INDE, others strongly based on it.

INDE's action plan calls for some specific actions by each member organization. It sets some expectations for Federal government departments and agencies, for CONCAR and for IBGE.

The Federal government departments and agencies are expected:

  • To follow the standards established by CONCAR and INDE in any activity that involves creation or acquisition of geospatial data;
  • To consultatwith CONCAR before starting new projects to create or acquire geospatial data.

IBGE is expected:

  • To build, make available and operate SIG Brasil (INDE's geoportal) following INDE's recommendations;
  • To manage INDE's central data catalog (DBDG) through the management, maintenance and advancement of SIG Brasil;
  • To make available the processes for electronic access to data, metadata, and services following CONCAR's guidelines for DBDG;
  • To implement any restrictions to data access as specified by the data producers;
  • To keep the confidentiality of census data as required by Law;
  • To bid for resources to implement and maintain INDE;
  • To report to CONCAR annually about the above listed activities.

CONCAR is expected:

  • To create evaluation policies and regulations for new INDE-related projects which involve the acquisition of geospatial data;
  • To make sure that INDE's standards correspond to CONCAR's, which follow previous legislation (Decreto-Lei no 243, de 28 de fevereiro de 1967 and Decreto no 89.817, de 20 de junho de 1984)
  • To coordinate the implementation of INDE's central data catalogue (DBDG);
  • To create guidelines for the creation and use of the central data catalogue (DBDG);
  • To make sure that central data catalogue (DBDG) follows the interoperability standards (e-Ping) set by the Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management;
  • To promote the use of Open Source Software solutions for INDE;
  • To follow up on IBGE's INDE-related tasks;
  • To submit INDE's implementation plan to the Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management, addressing the following issues:
  • Creating deadlines for (1) the implementation of DBDG and SIG Brasil; (2) the certification of data and metadata standards; (3) Federal departments and agencies to make available the metadata on data they will contribute to INDE; and (4) the availability of the services and metadata relevant to the data that will be available through the central data catalogue (DBDG )
  • Creating rules for publishing metadata on INDE and for new projects related to the acquisition of geospatial data by Federal departments and agencies;
  • Finding, jointly with IBGE, sources of funding for implementing INDE, development of standards, training, and the establishment of partnerships with Federal departments and agencies.

The implementation of INDE is planned to span 10 years starting in 2009. It will take place in three cycles. The first one, August 2009-December 2010, established a basic infrastructure of hardware, software and telecommunications for the SIG Brasil geoportal. This first cycle of development also established functionality such as searching, browsing and access to geospatial data and metadata from Federal departments and agencies. The second cycle, from 2011 to 2014, will focus on assessment, consequent planning and implementation of changes. The third cycle will start in 2015 and end in 2020 with a focus on expanding the user pool, better communication and alignment with the Federal Government objectives.

Returning to the Korean SDI, there are two main legislations for NGIS at the national level. Replacing "the Act on the establishment and use of the National Geographic information System [Act No. 8852, repealed]" legislated in 1996, with new future visions for Korean NSDI, "the Act on National Geospatial Information [Act No.9705, approved May 22 2009, implemented, August 23 2009]" has recently been passed[28]. This new legislation has a significant bearing on the Korean SDI. Because of a paradigm shift in the GIS technology from geographic information system to geo-spatial information, the importance of SDI and subsequent the necessity of the new legislation has been recognised by the geospatial community. This legislation is driven by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM) supported with multi participation of Korean GIS communities. The support of the GIS community provides a starting point to establish the policy to build spatial data and implement national SDI projects. A comparison between the new and old legislation (see Table 4.4) shows the bigger picture of Korean SDI change and development.

To promote the Korean GIS industry, "the Act on Promotion of Spatial Information Industry [Act No.9438, on February 6 2009 approved on August 7 2009 implemented] was also enacted in the last year[29]. According to this Act, by delegating responsibilities or sharing deputies, the MLTM could share responsibility [for?] with different relevant GIS organizations in the public and private sector in order to promote Korean GIS industries.

GIS regulations also exist at the various local government levels all of which have different GIS regulations. Most GIS regulations at a local level cover buildings, using and managing GIS data and security.


  New
(Korean Act No.9705)
Old
(Korean Act No. 8852, repealed)
General Provisions
('''§2 '''definition)






('''§3 '''access)

§2 "spatial data", "spatial database"
"spatial data system"
"national spatial data system"
"National Geospatial Program"
"spatial data referring system"

§3 Facilitation of Access and Use of Spatial Data with Citizens

§2 "geographic information"
"geographic information system"
"national geographic information system"



§3 Disclosure of Geographic information
System to promote … §5 National Spatial Data Committee

§10 Support from the Government
§8 National Geographic information System Promotion Committee
-
Creation of National Spatial Data Framework §12 Fundamental Spatial Data
§13 Spatial Data Referring System
§18 Establishment of National Spatial Data Center
-
-
-
Establishment and Utilization.. §21 Construction and Management of Spatial Databases
§25 Utilization, etc. of Spatial Data
§15 Establishment and Management of Geographic information Database
§18 Utilization of Geographic information
Protection.. §28-§31 Protection of National Spatial Data §22-25 Protection of Geographic information

Table 4.4 Comparison of old and new legislation

Institutional Arrangements

Korea

According to Act No.9705 §5, a coordinating structure within the public sector to promote Korean SDI was established in the MLTM in 2009. The aim of this interagency committee, the National Spatial Data Committee, was to deliberate on and coordinate matters concerning national spatial data policy to promote coordinated development, use, sharing and dissemination of Korean geospatial data and services.

The Committee structure is currently composed of four Subcommittees and three other subcommittees based on Presidential decree. Figure 4.1 shows the current organisation of Korean NSDI.

Figure 4.1: Korean NSDI Organizations (Source: MLTM, 2010)

As the only Korean national mapping agency the NGII (National Geographic Information Institute) has played an important role in Korean SDI.

At a local government level, the issue of the formation and position of GIS organizations is controversial. At the beginning of the 1st phase of NGIS, there was no separate organization within local government. Now however, separate GIS organizations are established. According to a survey on local governments in South Korea[30], there are several separate GIS divisions in each organisation and due to a lack of human resources and budgets in local government; a local public service officer is usually responsible for each domain business with each GIS application. For example, urban facilities GIS applications are the responsibility of the division of urban facilities. Unfortunately, this has proved to result in poor data sharing, inefficiency and ineffectiveness on behalf of local government. For business process re-engineering, GIS organizational issues will continue to be a main concern. As such, South Korea now recognizes that at a provincial and local level, the formation of efficient and proper GIS organizations or organizational restructuring is required.

The establishment of the GIS Coordinating Body for Underground Facilities as an inter-organizational structure at a local level, provides lessons for developing countries: In the earlier stages the GIS Coordinating Body for Underground Facilities at a local governments was not successful except for a handful of cases with sophisticated local government structures, for example in Seoul (Daegu GIS Coordinating Body for Underground Facilities). Due to the number of stakeholders in for example water pipeline and sewage (KT (Korea Telecommunication Corporation)[31], KOGAS (Korea Gas Corporation)[32], DOPC (Daehan Oil Pipeline Corporation)[33], KEPCO (Korea Electric Power Corporation)[34] and KDHC (Korean District Heating Corporation)[35]) which are participating in a digital underground facilities map project, data sharing is much more difficult to create and manage despite cooperative efforts with NGII. Cooperation based on a memorandum of understanding with every stakeholder is necessary to solve the problem of data sharing at a local level, but a solution was driven by central government and related organizations. Harmonization of a top-down approach and a bottom-up approach between the central and the local governments is the answer. Now the GIS Coordinating Body for Underground Facilities is actually working for a management of a digital underground facilities map.

In a non-governmental capacity the following organisations are working towards the development of Korean SDI:

  • Korean Association of Survey and Mapping[36]

The Korean Association of Surveying and Mapping (KASM) was established in 1972 as a non-profit organization to contribute to the development of the surveying industry by providing quality service for engineers and companies.

KASM is a powerful organization which represents the interest of the surveying community and which has provided new surveying technologies and studied various laws for legal enforcement and revision purposes. An especially important role of KASM is to assess public surveying results for the National Geography Information Institute[37]. Without this assessment, public surveying results and map productions such as digital topographic maps and digital underground facilities maps would not be usable for public purpose.

KASM collects and researches diverse data on surveying and mapping, provides education and training for surveying engineers and sets standards for surveying work costs.

  • Korean Geographic Information Industries Cooperative[38]

The Korean Geospatial Information Industries Cooperative (KBiz) was established in 1992 as a non-profit organization to contribute to the development of the geospatial Information Industries. It is composed of mostly small and medium geospatial information companies which now total 135 companies worldwide. Its main business is GIS education for data quality and new technology.

  • Korea Association of Geographic Information Studies[39]

The Korean Association of Geographic Information Studies (KAGIS) is an academic association which started in 1997 with 180 GIS scholars. It aims to contribute the development of geographic information studies and to communicate academic information and advanced geospatial technologies based on national and international academic networks.

  • Korean Society of Remote Sensing[40]

The Korean Society of Remote Sensing (KSRS) was established in 1984 for the development of remote sensing in Korea. As an academic society, its goal is: to make a significant contribution to develop and distribute advanced interdisciplinary technologies; to encourage co-research and co-operative development of remote sensing technologies; and to promote international academic communication and exchange of remote sensing technologies.

In the private sector, industry sectors such as GIS S/W providers, GIS DB developers, GIS consulting and audit service providers and GIS academies, are making partial efforts for developing Korean SDI. In 2008, the number of registered GIS companies to MLTM was approximately 400. However, the number of registered land surveying companies was over 2,200. At present, most GIS companies still remain at SME status.

Brazil

The executive branch of the Brazilian federal government is organized in to ministries, which create and implement regulations, development programs and policies directed towards the sectors that they each represent. In strategic areas, there are a number of secretariats and councils.

Policies and coordinated action on geographic information and SDI-related themes (with implications at the state and local level), originate mostly in the Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management (Ministério do Planejamento, Orçamento e Gestão, MPOG). The structure of this ministry (see Figure 4.2) includes three organizations central to the federal GI/SDI agenda. The first of these is IBGE, the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics, which is both a source of census data and socioeconomic surveys and statistical data and responsible for nation-wide mapping. IBGE coordinates CONCAR, the Brazilian cartographic committee, which issues most cartographic standards and regulations. Both IBGE and CONCAR are responsible for INDE (Infraestrutura Nacional de Dados Espaciais, the Brazilian SDI). Finally, one of the secretariats under the ministry (- Secretaria de Logística e Tecnologia da Informação (Secretariat of Logistics and Information Technology) (SLTI) has a mandate to organize logistics and IT initiatives for the federal government. SLTI is the responsible for e-Ping, a set of directives for interoperability among federal government organizations, among other important activities regarding communications, technological infrastructure, e-government and information systems integration.

CONCAR has representatives from 17 of the 24 ministries, two secretariats of the President's office, the cartographic services of the Brazilian military, IBGE and a representative from the class association of the aerial surveying companies[41]. CONCAR organizes regional forums, for each of the five geographic regions of the country. There are five technical sub-commissions covering: national defence, spatial data, dissemination of information, legislation and standards and planning. CONCAR members are listed in Appendix A.

Figure 4.2: Organizational structure of the Brazilian Ministry of Planning, Budget and Management

Role of Public and Private Sectors

Assessing the role played by the private companies in the diffusion of innovation is a major challenge in transitional economies. The case of GIS/SDI Brazil is no different. The available surveys are still incomplete and give only rough indicators of the extent of this participation. There are more than 200 companies working with GIS in Brazil. The total market is estimated at around US$150million and with over 4,000 employees more than 75% with a technical background. Agriculture and facilities management are the largest private application markets while urban cadastre makes up 45% of the public customers (Magalhaes and Granemman 2005)[42]. Companies offering services based on open source software form 15% of the service provider market. The linkages between the various players can be grouped in to three main categories: (a) data providers; (b) service providers based on commercial software; and (c) service providers based on open source software.

  • Data providers have formulated their business around the failures of the Brazilian mapping agencies to provide basic digital cartographic information. Their business consisted of digitizing existing topographic maps, as well as high-resolution imagery distribution. As a more comprehensive SDI is established, and public maps are made available in digital formats, the data providers will have to change their business models and either adopt new technology such as digital photogrammetry for creating new maps, or become service providers of location based services and online maps.
  • The service providers based on commercial software have based their strategy on the leverage provided by existing proprietary solutions. Usually, they associate software licensing to services such as customization and database modelling. This model has proven successful. However, it is subject to the same transitions that are happening in the international GIS arena, where a new generation of spatial databases is already having a strong impact on the market. These companies are struggling to adapt themselves to these changes, including staffing of technical teams, where instead of hiring cartographers and geographers for map making activities, they require experts in spatial databases. The "early adopters" are the main providers of qualified personnel for these companies.

Data Issues

Spatial data sets are at the core of any SDI and essential for GIS usage. In Korea, to avoid the duplication of data production, fundamental national spatial data can be introduced As illustrated in Table 4.4, legislation for the production of fundamental spatial data has recently been enforced. According to Act No.9705 §12 1, the MLTM shall designate as fundamental spatial data that which is relevant to artificial structures such as data about topography, coastal boundaries, administrative boundaries, boundaries road or rail boundaries, river boundaries, acreage and structures and other major spatial data determined by Presidential Decree after consultation with the heads of relevant central administrative agencies.

Thus, fundamental spatial data which consists of the following 8 themes can now be added to other major themes such as addresses and many other data:

1. Administrative boundaries

2. Transportation

3. Hydrography

4. Cadastral maps

5. Geodetic controls

6. Topographic maps

7. Facilities

8. Satellite imagery & aerial photographs

Even though the national digital topographical map are available at various scales (1:1000, 1:5000, and 1:25000), some of the fundamental spatial data is missing as some themes are still being built. Despite heavy investment in spatial data building over the 3 stages of the NGIS project, fundamental spatial data is still not ready for use. During the1st phase of the project, there was a lack of understanding over the importance of a fundamental spatial data pool. Additionally, without a clear concept or definition there was not always consensus over which data should be selected as fundamental spatial data. To achieve this, a coordinating process across various stakeholders based on users' need is required.

Given the volume of GIS applications in Korea many GI datasets exist. It is impossible to explore each of them in great detail. Here, the catalogue of several main data sets - including NGII's digital topographical map at scales 1:5000 and 1:25000 (excluding some mountain and island areas) and 81 of 84 cities at scale 1:1000 , to which the public have access via the Korea National Geographic Information Clearinghouse - can be reviewed (see Table 4.5).

Application Data sets Scale Target area Number of data sets Price
Topology Digital topologic map 1/5,000
1/25,000
1/1,000
Nationwide

11,835

17,000won
Environmental GIS vegetation map of naturalness
vegetation map
Land cover map
1/50,000
1/50,000
1/50,000
Nationwide
206
234
238
Free
Free
Free
Agriculture GIS
Soil map
1/25,000 Gyunggido 69 Free
Forest GIS Forest use base map
Forest map
Forest road map
1/25,000
1/25,000
1/25,000
Nationwide
22
23
21
Free
Free
Free
Urban GIS Land use map
Land map
Urban Planning Map
1/25,000
1/5,000, 1/1,000
1/3,000
1/500
Nationwide
Nationwide
Nationwide
Seoul, Kwuyngjoo
415
9,714
6,944
16,176
1,188
17,500won
10,500won
12,000won
Underground Facilities GIS Sewage facilities map 1/1,000   1,716
(2:restricted)
0.0879won per bite
Hydrography Hydrographic geologic map
Hydrographic geologic map
1/25,000
1/25,000
Nationwide
53
377
Free
'Free' means free of charge just on public purpose, that is, not free to all users including value adding private companies

Table 4.5: Current Status of Data Sets in South Korea


With regard to data quality, the NGII (National Geographic Information Institute) has conducted research and established regulations. For example, in accordance with the NGII regulation on the evaluation of digital map products which defines the data quality principle and evaluation method/criteria, the map product of NGII must be guaranteed. To guarantee data quality of maps for public use, as mentioned above, NGII regulations require assessment of public surveying results and map productions and the minimum assessment criteria established by KASM for NGII must be met. NGII is also recently starting to construct digital topographic maps at 1:2500 scale to meet user needs for data quality with relatively less construction costs than the 1:1000 equivalent.

INDE's geoportal, SIG Brasil, is currently under construction[43]. INDE's website currently links to access to the National Directory of Spatial Data, which consists of a description of the intended contents and list of potential participants which basically constitute all federal spatial data producers (Table 4.6).

There are several web pages from which users might download spatial information, but these are usually spread across the sites of the data producing organizations. In special cases, such as IBGE, there is a more structured site for downloading data, which effectively works as a clearinghouse. IBGE, for instance, maintains an FTP server with a wide variety of geographic data layers and statistical information.

Only a few institutions are currently offering access through web services. These include the ministry of the environment (MMA), CPRM (the Brazilian geological survey) and IBGE. MMA has the most advanced site with a GeoNetwork installation from which a variety of metadata can be searched[44]. Available information includes data on environmental reserves, species distribution maps, ecological zoning, land use maps, and others. MMA also offers direct viewing and manipulation of data using an i3Geo installation (see the Software and Network Issues section ahead). CPRM[45] hosts OGC Web services over geological information, such as geology maps and geo-environmental maps, along with relief imagery and mineral provinces. IBGE has recently installed GeoNetwork[46] and is currently undergoing the production of metadata and the creation of services related to basic cartographic data.

Acronym Name Function
ANTAQ Agência Nacional de Transportes Aquaviários Fluvial and maritime transportation
ANTT Agência Nacional de Transportes Terrestres Ground transportation
CENSIPAM Centro Gestor e Operacional do Sistema de Proteção da Amazônia (SIPAM) Environmental protection
CPRM Serviço Geológico do Brasil Geology and mineral resources
DHN Diretoria de Hidrografia e Navegação (Marinha do Brasil) Cartography (Brazilian Navy)
DNIT Departamento Nacional de Infraestrutura de Transportes Terrestres Roads and highways
DSG Diretoria de Serviço Geográfico do Exército Brasileiro Cartography (Brazilian Army)
EMBRAPA Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária Research on agriculture and livestock
IBGE Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística Cartography, demography, statistical data
ICA Instituto de Cartografia Aeronáutica Cartography (Brazilian Air Force)
INCRA Instituto Nacional de Colonização e Reforma Agrária Settlement and land distribution
INPE Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais Space research, remote sensing, environmental monitoring
MC Ministério das Cidades Ministry of cities
MF Ministério da Fazenda Ministry of finance
MT Ministério dos Transportes Ministry of transportation
SPU Secretaria do Patrimônio da União Federal real estate records

Table 4.6 - Potential participants of the Brazilian Directory of Spatial Data

INPE hosts an online catalogue of remote sensing images, which are free of charge for download. The image library includes images from Landsat satellites 1/2/3/5/7, CBERS-2, CBERS-2B and ResourceSat-1. INPE's initiative to offer remote sensing images free of charge has been widely acknowledged and inspired the opening of image catalogues from other national space agencies around the world, including NASA and the Landsat archive (Kintisch 2007)[47].

Currently there is much more concern over the publication of available data than for updating or enhancing existing datasets. In some cases, the development or updating of datasets runs in parallel to the development of SDI services with an established intention to integrate new data to the SDI when it is ready. One of the most interesting features of service-based SDI, namely the possibility of publishing historical datasets along with the most current ones as separate services, can modify established GIS updating practices. This possibility is perceived in some ongoing SDI projects.

Access Issues

Current statistical analyses suggest that Brazil may have an infrastructural bottleneck regarding Internet access and usage. This prompted the federal government to develop a national plan for broadband Internet connection (PNBL - Plano Nacional de Banda Larga) (MC 2010). It is intended40 million Brazilian households will have a low-cost broadband connection by 2014, thus fulfilling the goal proposed by the UN at the 2005 World Summit of the Information Society to take the Internet to all communities, all schools, museums, public libraries, hospitals and health centers and all governmental instances. The main idea behind the plan however, is to stimulate the private sector to invest in the development of the broadband infrastructure in a competitive environment. The government also plans to act directly, focusing its investments in collective access and in the process reducing regional and social disparities.

Estimates collected by PNBL show that in December 2008 there were 9.6 million broadband connections in Brazil corresponding to 17.8 connections per 100 households and 5.2 connections per capita. Since then, the numbers have increased strongly. This is in part due to the expanding role of cellular phone based connections and in part due to the 49% yearly growth rate observed between 2002 and 2008. Based on current figures, PNBL expects connections to reach 31.2 per 100 households by 2014, still leaving Brazil with proportionately less connections than countries such as Argentina, Chile and Mexico[48].

Considering more generally both narrow and broadband connections, Brazil has an expressive number of Internet users- approximately 39% in 2008- indicating a potentially significant demand for broadband services in the near future.

The expansion of broadband Internet access in Brazil faces two specific challenges: (1) establishing effective conditions in regulation for competition among major suppliers of broadband services, and (2) expanding the geographic reach of broadband coverage. PNBL acts mostly on the second challenge attempting to use public resources to expand collective points of access (call-centres and governmental usage), with specific actions towards remote areas and low income municipalities. The plan also intends to foster mobile access, establishing a goal of 60 million mobile broadband connections, and 30 million fixed broadband connections by 2014. To put this into perspective, this means achieving 50 connections per 100 households by the time the country hosts the next soccer World Cup.

There is no established intention to charge for data access and INDE's creation decree states that data will be provided at no charge for registered users. Therefore, SDIs will be able to side with, or, ideally, to expand on and complement the capabilities freely provided by commercial GI services and virtual globes to meet the needs of the geographic information community.

Korea

The NGIS Portal (http://www.ngis.go.kr/index.jsp) and National Geographic Information Clearinghouse (NGIC)[49] are good starting points for spatial data access gateways. The NGIS Portal contains links to 4 sub-Portals; PGIS for policy[50], SGIS for standards[51], EGIS for education[52] and CGIS [which is?] linked to a National Geographic Information Clearinghouse[53]. The CGIS Portal links the National Geographic Information Clearinghouse, Geotechnical Information Clearinghouse[54] and Marine GIS Clearinghouse[55].

Many different data sets can be obtained either free or chargeable online through the NGIC (Figure 4.3) and/or offline. The NGIC centre plays the role of an NGIC gateway and manages the regional gateway and distribution record information. The National gateway (NGII) covers the whole of the country and eight regional gateways operate their own independent systems, which distribute the data of the corresponding region.

Figure 4.3 Configuration Diagram of the NGIC[56]

As a one-stop shop in Korea, the NGIC provides approximately 150 kinds of diversified spatial data from 11 data themes, including construction/transportation, agriculture/forestry, urban/facilities, culture/tours, nature/ecology, cadastral/land, topology/satellite image, ocean/water resource, administration/statistics and environment/ atmosphere. Users can search for spatial data and after the user has located the required data, an online payment can be made and the data downloaded. Data that has been designated as "free" can be downloaded from the main page without search procedures or payment. The user can preview the data in advance and can also inquire regarding the history of the data through the metadata searches. In other words, NGIC provides all types of service for which metadata have been created, including services for finding (discovering), viewing and downloading spatial data, as defined by the INSPIRE Directive[57].

Despite the provision of nearly 1 million spatial data elements through the NGIC, some data remains restricted. Security is an issue in Korea given political and military tensions between the North and South.

South Korea is gradually transforming to an open data policy in order to make public sector information available (e.g. freedom of information). For example, the plan for data.gov.kr has just begun[58]. On completion more spatial data will be open. For instance, at the beginning of July 2010, MLTM has announced free public access to 38,000 spatial datasets across 58 themes in the public sector.

New challenges for open data policies, including issues relating to privacy and intellectual property rights, require new legal frameworks. In addition to previously discussed legislation (see Editing World Bank SDI Report - SDI Implementation (in a Developing Country Context)#Policy Context and legislative framework), there are several legal frameworks in Korea corresponding to major related acts. These are outlined in Table 4.7. Despite these legal enforcements and regulations various problems regarding access to spatial data remain. For example, identifying copyright ownership of map products and value added map data sets.

Concern Name of Act Purpose or Related Main Article
Protection of Privacy "National Spatial Data Infrastructure Act (Act No. 9705, Augst.23, 2009)" Article 30 (2) No person shall be allowed to infringe upon the rights or privacy of another by using spatial data or spatial databases.
Act on the Protection, Use, etc. of Location Information(Act No. 9483, Mar. 13, 2009) Article 1 (Purpose) The purpose of this Act is to protect privacy from the leakage, abuse and misuse of location information, promote a safe environment for using location information and activate the use of location information, thus contributing to the improvement of people's standard of living and the promotion of public welfare.
"Act on Promotion of Information and Communications Network Utilization and Information Protection, etc. (Act No. 10166, Mar. 22, 2010)"
Article 1 (Purpose) The purpose of this Act is to contribute to the improvement of citizens' lives and the enhancement of public welfare by facilitating utilization of information and communications networks, protecting personal information of people using information and communications services, and developing an environment in which people can utilize information and communications networks in a sounder and safer way.
"Act on the Protection of Personal Information Maintained by Public Institutions (Act No. 8871, Feb. 29, 2008)" Article 1 (Purpose) The purpose of this Act is to secure proper execution of public affairs and to further protect the rights and benefits of all citizens by establishing necessary guidelines concerning protection of private information managed by such equipment with functions for processing, transmitting and receiving information as computers or closed-circuit televisions of public institutions.
Intellectual property rights SPATIAL DATA INDUSTRY PROMOTION ACT (Act No. 9438, Feb. 6, 2009)

Article 10 (Protection of Intellectual Property Rights)
(1) The Government may implement the following policies to protect intellectual property rights involved in technologies, data, etc. related to spatial data:
1. Technical protection of private spatial data utilization systems and databases;
2. Vitalization of display of the information on management of new spatial data technologies;
3. Education on and publicity of copyrights and other intellectual property rights to spatial data;
(2) The Government may entrust the business of implementing such policy as referred to in any subparagraph of paragraph (1) to any institution or organization that specializes in the field of intellectual property rights related to spatial data, etc., as prescribed by Presidential Decree.

Article 21 (Special Cases concerning Investment in Industrial Property Rights, etc.)
Copyright Act(Act No. 9785, Jul. 31, 2009)
Article 1 (Purpose) The purpose of this Act is to protect the rights of authors and the rights neighboring on them and to promote fair use of works in order to contribute to the improvement and development of culture and related industries.

Article 4 (Examples of Works) 8. Maps, charts, design drawings, sketches, models and other diagrammatic works;
Data open policy & national informatization policy Framework Act on National Informatization (Act No. 10166, Mar. 22, 2010) Article 1 (Purpose) The purpose of this Act is to contribute to the realization of a sustainable knowledge and information based society, and to improve the quality of life for the nation by prescribing matters necessary for the establishment and promotion of the basic direction of national informatization and policies relevant thereto.
Act on the Protection of Information and Communications Infrastructure(Act No. 9708, May 22, 2009) Article 1 (Purpose) The purpose of this Act is to operate main information and communications infrastructure in a stable manner by formulating and implementing measures concerning the protection of such infrastructure, in preparation for intrusion by electronic means, thereby contributing to the safety of the nation and the stability of the life of people.
Act on the Efficient Introduction and Operation of Information Systems(Act No. 9209, December 26, 2008) Article 1 (Purpose) The purpose of this Act is to facilitate efficient management of information and technology resources, improve efficiency of investment in informatization, raise performance of organizations, and ultimately contribute to development of the national economy, by promoting utilization of information technology architecture and establishing a system for auditing information systems.
  Official Information Disclosure Act (Act No. 8871, Feb. 29, 2008)"
Article 1 (Purpose) The purpose of this Act is to ensure the people's rights to know and to secure the people's participation in state affairs and the transparency of the operation of state affairs by prescribing necessary matters concerning the people's claims for the disclosure of information kept and controlled by public institutions and the obligations of public institutions to disclose such information.

Table 4.7 Acts and legislation relating to the use of spatial data in Korea[59]


Standards

IN Brazil, there are several standardization laws and bylaws relating to cartography, spatial information and SDI. The competence for issuing standards and regulations originates in a 1967 law (Decreto-Lei 243/1967) complemented by regulations issued in 1984 (Decreto 89.817 de 20 de junho de 1984). Cartography is also regulated by the national metrology system (Lei 5.966 de 11 de dezembro de 1973). There are also standards for geodesic surveying (Resolução IBGE PR 22, de 21 de julho de 1983). One particular standard (defined by CONCAR's predecessor, COCAR, Resolução COCAR 84, de 5 de dezembro de 1984) defines rules for the development of all other Brazilian cartographic standards.

More recently, CONCAR issued a renewed definition of cartographic standards (Resolução CONCAR 01/2006) and, already within the scope of INDE, defined the Brazilian spatial metadata profile (Perfil de Metadados Geoespaciais do Brasil – MGB, Resolução CONCAR 1/2009, de 01 de dezembro de 2009). MGB is the result of the work of CONCAR's committee for structuring geospatial metadata throughout 2008 and 2009. MGB is based on the ISO 19115:2003 standard on geographic information metadata. Since the ISO standard covers over 400 elements, a subset was selected to form the Brazilian metadata profile after an analysis of metadata profiles adopted in Portugal, Spain, North America (USA and Canada), Peru and a proposed profile for Latin America (CONCAR 2009)[60]. The profile is organized into sections, as in ISO 19115: general identification, identification of the geographic dataset, constraint information, quality (including lineage), maintenance information, spatial representation, reference system, content information, distribution and metadata on metadata. In each section, fields are thoroughly described, their status as mandatory or optional is indicated, their constituent elements are listed, and a textual description is presented, along with examples. A data dictionary is also included in MGB's basic document, in which names adopted by the standard and adapted from ISO 19115 are described and characterized.

SLTI, along with the national institute of information technology (subordinated to the office of the President) and SERPRO, the federal information technology company, have developed and fostered e-Ping[61], an architecture for interoperability in the Brazilian e-government. The architecture is intended as a TI infrastructure for e-government initiatives, so that systems can be more easily integrated and investments in the sector can be properly channelled, with lower overall costs. It also envisions the necessary integration with other countries and international organizations. The e-Ping structure is initially conceived as a platform for the executive branch of the federal government and covers several areas, such as interconnection, security, access, information organization and exchange.

E-Ping maintains an interoperability guide for e-government and an interoperability catalogue. The interoperability catalogue[62] includes a data formatting catalogue, a Web services catalogue and an XML Schemas catalogue (implementation date to be confirmed). There is also a metadata standard for e-government, called e-PMG (Padrão de Metadados do Governo eletrônico)[63], but it is not referenced to an international standard, as in the case of MGB. As to information organization and exchange, the e-Ping guide (CEGE 2009)[64] simply establishes the use of XML, XML Schema, UML, XSL and other well-known Web standards. The guide also defines a navigational taxonomy, which is in fact a controlled vocabulary called VCGE (Vocabulário Controlado do Governo Eletrônico). For integration, the e-Ping guide recommends the use of Web services and the gradual shift towards service-oriented architecture (SOA), while simultaneously providing an architectural model (Arquitetura Referencial de Interoperabilidade dos Sistemas Informatizados de Governo – AR). Many specifications have been adopted by e-Ping (see Table 4.8). Notice the adoption of the most important Open Geospatial Consortium's Web services, and the recommendation to adopt others.GML has also been adopted.

Themes Specifications Spec
(*)
Comments
GEOREFERENCED
INFORMATION –
Interoperability
between geographic
information systems
WMS version 1.0 or later
http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards
A
 
WFS version 1.0 or later
http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards
A  
WCS version 1.0 or later
http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards
A  
CSW version 2.0 or later
http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/cat
A  
WFS-T version 1.0 or later
http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/wfs
R Follow patterns and
security policies set by
the GT2, particularly
WS-Security
WKT/WKB
http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/sfa
R To encrypt coordinates
in conventional Web
services. The
coordinates must be in
Lat / Long using the
datum SIRGAS2000 or
WGS-84. Use GML
whenever possible.
(*) Specifications: A – Adopted; R – Recommended
Table 4.8: Adoption of geospatial Web services as part of e-Ping
(Source: translated excerpt from (CEGE 2009)[65])

Currently, the interoperability catalogue does not include any data formats. However, some Web services are listed. INDE's geographic Web services are not included in the interoperability catalogue meaning the integration initiative lacks support and more time is required to allow existing systems to migrate towards SOA. The adoption of international standards, however, is a good starting point.

Without agreed standards, underpinning data and network aspects of SDI interoperability becomes more difficult to achieve. In Korea, in the 4th phase of MLTM's National GIS Comprehensive implementation plan (2011-2015), several projects will be performed to develop and manage GIS standards for interoperability. By the end of the 3rd phase two levels of standards systems have been established:

1. TTA standards: TTA (Telecommunications Technology Association) GIS standards are at community level and for Korean NGIS[66]. However, they are not mandatory. Therefore, the issue on the necessity of the mandatory standard for SDI continues to be disputed. TTA standards have been developed focusing on standardization on data production and distribution of digital maps at the beginning and recently achieved the development of standard on Framework Data Model and mobile GIS. Now, standardization on ubiGI data services and technologies is underway.

2. KS standards: KS (Korean Industrial Standard) GIS standards are at the national level[67]. KS standards are developed by adoption of ISO 19100 series, including geographic information:conceptual schema, application schema, data quality principle and metadata.The Korean ISO Committee under KATS (Korean Agency for Technology and Standards) is now making an effort to harmonize terminology among KS GIS standards due to translation inconsistencies and also to harmonize recently revised and new ISO 19100 standard series. The Current status of Korean GIS standards is showed in detail in Annex A.

Communication Issues

International issues

The Brazilian involvement with international instances regarding the creation of a global spatial data infrastructure is still at an early stage. Participation of Brazilian government officials in GSDI events is only a recent development[68] and INDE's documentation does not include any mention of initiatives in that direction. Furthermore, academic surveys on spatial data clearinghouses (Crompvoets, Bregt et al. 2004; Crompvoets and Bregt 2006)[69] and first-generation national spatial data infrastructures (Onsrud 1998)[70] did not include Brazilian initiatives.

However, IBGE participates in many international initiatives and endeavours relating to geography, cartography and statistics, including the establishment of SIRGAS2000, the geodesic referencing system for the Americas. IBGE and CONCAR have recently hosted a meeting of the planning workgroup for the permanent committee for spatial data infrastructure of the Americas, in which a plan of action has been discussed for the 2010-2013 timeframe[71]. Eight nations were represented by directors of their geosciences institutes, with three more in contact through video conferences. Seven workgroups were proposed, in order to push forward various aspects of international SDI development, including groups on institutional strengthening, standards, best practices, innovations, diagnostics and technology.

In Korea, international cooperation can be considered in various perspectives. Firstly, with regard to mapping, survey and remote sensing technologies, NGII is involved with several global and regional GI, Surveying and RS organizations. These are: The Permanent Committee on GIS Infrastructure for Asia and the Pacific[72], the International Steering Committee for Global Mapping[73], International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing[74], American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, International Cartographic Association[75], IGU, UN Conference on the Standardization of Geographical Names[76], UN Regional Cartographic Conferences [77] and International Federation of Surveyors [78].. Secondly, as a participating member, Korea is involved with ISO/TC211[79]. Additionally OGC/TC Korea has recently been established to participate in OGC[80] standard programmes. Thirdly, for international cooperation and aid, the Korea International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) conducts a GIS training program "Urban & Regional Development Policy of Kazakhstan", GIS mineral resources and mine hazard management of Mongolia, Hydro-Infra Development and Management of Bangladesh as well as others, as part of the Korean government's grant aid and technical cooperation program[81]. Lastly, in the private sector for GI/GIS related data or services, several Korean GIS vendors such as LG-EDS, SK C&C, KTdata, Geomania, Hanjin Information Systems & Telecommunications. have widened export markets to China, Mongolia, Vietnam, Iran, and Brazil.

Funding and Resources

In Brazil, INDE's action plan (CONCAR 2010)[82] includes an estimate of the financial resources that are necessary to accomplish the initial activities for the deployment of the Brazilian SDI. Th estimate covers the first year of operation with a budget of approximately R$10 million (approximately US$6million). Funding is expected to come from the Treasury, as INDE's creation executive order determined that spatial data included in the SDI should be freely available to the registered users. This precludes any initiative to generate revenue from data access and sets an example to State and local SDIs as to sources of funding for their respective initiatives. The rationale behind this decision seems to be that most of the data production costs are already included in each data producer's budget and therefore only dissemination costs are new. In turn, dissemination costs are mostly decreasing as computer equipment and Internet connections costs diminish over time. Following INDE's example, no other Brazilian SDI development project has currently publicized any intention to charge for information access.

Charging for data has been relatively rare in Brazil. Some data producers established a cost-recovery policy based on expenses generated by the fulfilment of demand, i.e. costs related to extracting, copying or plotting data, such as media and supplies, along with the man-hours required for consumer support. Most organizations used to view data production as part of their institutional responsibilities, and therefore governmental agencies, citizens and businesses were not supposed to pay for information (Davis Jr. 1995)[83]. This rationale seems to have prevailed and many organizations that used to charge for geographic information, IBGE included, now provide free access over the Internet. There is now no meaningful debate as to data commercialization or even recovery costs, possibly as a direct result of the aforementioned rationale.

One of the most important initiatives of data dissemination in Brazil has been implemented by INPE, the Brazilian National Institute for Space Research in charge of remote sensing and deforestation monitoring (see World Bank SDI Report - Worldwide SDI Development and Outreach#The Brazilian National Institute for Space Research (INPE)). Although in the 1970s INPE did not publish either the data or the analytical methods, today INPE enforces a paradigm-changing open data and open access policy. Now Brazil has its own satellite program and, according to Science Magazine, INPE generates "yearly totals of deforested land that scientists regard as reliable" and "provides automated weekly clear-cutting alerts that other tropical nations would love to emulate" (Kintisch 2007)[84]. Currently, the Amazonia rainforest in South America is being regularly covered (by LANDSAT-5 and CBERS-2B satellites) and, through INPE, this data is freely available on the Web. INPE's open data policy enables experts from all over the world to analyze satellite images over the internet. This means that for experts from Central Africa, using Brazil's open data policy for example, it is more attractive to look for relevant satellite images through Brazilian-provided data of satellites such as CBERS (the Chinese-Brazilian Earth Resources Satellites) than to use commercially available data.

Commenting on Brazil's Open-Data policy, an article in Nature said that "Brazil has set an important precedent by making its Earth-observation data available, and the rest of the world should follow suit"[85]. INPE has pledged to make its expertise available to all countries and institutions interested in preserving the world's rain forests. This is achieved based mostly on INPE's budget.

Although most GIS and SDI projects start up with budgetary funding, in some instances initial funding has been obtained from external sources. For instance, two on-going SDI development projects (IDE-BA and DataGeo/IDEA, see 3.4.2.3) are funded by a small part of a much larger World Bank funding for roads development and re-pavement. In the past, metropolitan GIS projects have been funded by a small share of garbage collection and treatment projects, also funded by the World Bank.

Although there are some cooperation agreements for GIS development which allow private companies (especially those involved in public services such as utilities companies) to participate and contribute, there is (to the best of our knowledge) no initiative to involve the private sector further in GIS or SDI projects. Brazilian legislation allows for public-private partnerships, but these usually apply to large engineering works or to physical infrastructure, such as roads or subways.

Like Brazil, SDI development in Korea is funded by central government.

From the first phase of the National SDI plan (1995-2000) to the 3rd phase of (2005-2010), a significant amount of the budget had been invested. By 2008, 3trillionwon had been invested, made up 2,787 billion won in the 1st phase, 4,550 billion won in the 2nd phase and 4,438 billion won in the 3rd phase. Figure 4.4 shows the changes in each of the NGIS sector's budget during this period. These figures are described in detail in Table 4.

For the 4th phase of the NGIS (2011-2015), considerably more funding (4.5 trillion won) is expected to be invested. Part of this budget will also be assigned to the national and local governments' budgets.

Figure 4.4: Time Flow Chart of the NGIS Budget by sector (Source: MLTM, 2010)


The 1st NGIS phase

(1995-2000)

The 2nd NGIS phase(2001-2005)

The 3rd NGIS phase(2006-2010)


Budgets Unit

billion won

million USD

%

billion won

million USD

%

billion won

million USD


Framework data

1,166

145.5

41.8

1,476

113.5

32.4

1,506

146.7

33.9

Application

1,287

160.8

46.2

2,689

207.1

59.1

2,342

228.5

52.8

Technology

204

25.4

7.3

226

17.5

5.0

531

51.9

12

Standard

14

1.7

0.5

40

3.2

0.9

13

1.3

0.3

Law/institution/

policy

116

14.6

4.2

119

9.1

2.6

46

4.3

1

Sum

2,787

348.1

100

4,550

350.3

100

4,438

432.7

100



Table 4.9 Investment for Korean SDI (Source: MLTM, 2010)

  The 4th NGIS phase (2011~2015)
billion won million USD %
Coordinate Governance 10,343 882.5 23.5
Ease Access 905 78.9 2.1
Interoperability 1,383 116.4 3.1
Integration 19,592 1,671.1 44.5
For Intelligent spatial information 8,096 691.0 18.4
For Promotion of spatial information industry 1,079 90.1 2.4
Others 2,659 225.3 6.0
Sum 44,057 3,755.4 100

Table 4.10 Planned Budgets for the 4'th 'Phase of NGIS (2011-2015)

For the Korean NSDI, in addition to the collection and preparation of funds, the prevention of dual investment and efficiency of the allocation of resources are also important considerations. In order to achieve the successful GIS implementation it is also important to obtain continuous financial supports from decision makers. AS such, several cost/benefit analyses of the allocation of resources have been made at both national and local levels. At a local level, from large metropolitan cities such as Daegu[86] and Incheon Metropolitan City[87] to medium cities such as Chungju City[88], the cost-benefit analyses have been undertaken and the results found useful for stimulating local government expenditure in local SDI, particularly in the UIS [?].

Human Capacity and Capital

Most definitions of spatial data infrastructures feature "people" as one of the most important components. "People" refers to technical personnel who are able to play the many roles required for a successful SDI. These roles range from geography, geodesy or cartography experts in charge of data gathering and preparation, to computer science specialists which manage the computational infrastructure and ensure the performance of Web services over the Internet. Experts and specialists in other areas can contribute in a variety of thematic data that can compose the SDI and can also play the role of users interested in obtaining access to basic data from the SDI to develop their own projects. Of course all these roles exist within governmental organizations, academia commercial institutions, private companies, and NGOs as well as within the freelance community.

As one of the most important emergent economies in the world, Brazil has an array of undergraduate programs in each of the above mentioned fields. Overall, in 2008 the country had over 2,200 higher education institutions, hosting over 24,000 programs[89]. There were 162 Earth Sciences programs (geography, geology, oceanography, hydrology, and so on), 1,673 Computer Science/Information Processing programs and 2,247 engineering programs in all denominations. Given the fact that the study of GIS has only recently become relatively commonit is supposed that the presence of geographic information management topics in the curricula of these programs is relatively rare.

Nevertheless, in Brazil there is a growing number of graduate programs on GIS and related fields. Most of these are lato sensu graduate programs, i.e., programs for graduate students that do not provide a Master's or a Doctoral degree: in Brazil, the award is "Specialist". For example, the specialization program on geoprocessing offered by the Cartography department of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais since 1997 has certified over 300 students.

There are also several stricto sensu Master's and Doctoral programs which conduct research in GIS-related themes. An academic symposium on geoinformatics has been held annually since 1999 and attracts around 150 researchers and students every year. Brazilian researchers are frequently published in the most important academic journals in the field and constantly participate in international symposia and conferences.

Given this relatively strong human capacity and knowledge pool in the areas necessary for the development of a national SDI, INDE's Action Plan document (CONCAR 2010)[90] focused on the need to present new concepts to existing professionals over the need for professional development per se. The perspective of INDE was that operating with spatial information through an SDI constitutes skills development and so both managers and professionals should be familiar with the data-centric approach and the related concepts, such as metadata and Web services. As a result, chapter 6 in INDE's Action Plan characterizes three groups of professionals to be targeted for educational development:

1. Institutional users (to include managers and people responsible for standardization or communication among organizations);

2. Experts in management, production and the use of data (to include most data producers and consumers, including those responsible for cataloguing and creating metadata);

3. Technology professionals (mostly IT professionals, in charge of creating and operating databases, establishing Web services, and managing operational aspects such as security)

A broad scope of education programs has been proposed in the Action Plan in an attempt to characterize the range of required skills to promote adequate SDI usage. While some attention is given to undergraduate students, it is natural to expect that SDI-related themes will be gradually incorporated into the curriculum of the programs as soon as accessing spatial data through the Internet for immediate use is seen as a valid and more efficient alternative to the current offline transfer and downloading practice. Currently however, SDI is still a topic for graduate courses and an item in the geoinformatics-related research agenda.

Software and Network Services

In 2003, a free software strategy was included as part of the national e-government policy. This action came as a result of a previous movement by state and municipal administrations, which, through the increasing availability of high-quality free software, perceived an opportunity for rationalizing expenditure in IT. This coincided with a period of intensive government use of the Internet. IT infrastructure staples such as e-mail and Web sites were also becoming universal for public organizations. Federal universities have also had a role in this push towards free software, since many had knowledge and experience in early networking initiatives such as BitNet. An initiative towards building a low-priced "popular" computer was also developed, geared towards basic education and using free software as part of the necessary cost reduction. By 2005, there were some GNU-Linux distributions configured specifically for governmental use. More recently, an agreement established the Open Document Format (ODF) as a standard for the Brazilian government, with an interoperability rationale. Currently, the free software initiative is led by a committee (Comitê Técnico de Implementação do Software Livre (CISL) –- Technical Committee for the Implementation of Free Software), which meets periodically and publishes its deliberations on the Web[91]. The initiative also maintains a portal[92] for the promotion of "public software", i.e., software that can be shared among governmental organizations and branches at every level. Available public software includes: Ginga, a middleware for interactive digital TV; and Cacic, an automatic agent for the collection of hardware and software configurations in networked PCs.

One of the strongest communities in the public software portal supports i3Geo, an assemblage of geospatial software geared towards the dissemination of spatial data over the Web. The main components of i3Geo are PostGreSQL, MapServer and a Web-based viewer. The package includes utilities which facilitate the installation and configuration of these components. Some analysis and visualization tools are also provided. Users include a number of ministries (the Ministry of the Environment was the responsible for the initial development and GPL licensing of i3Geo), regulatory agencies and other institutions.

TerraLib

In 2000, the Brazilian government started funding a large-scale open source GIS project. The project is TerraLib, an open-source library for GIS and associated applications and enables quick development of GIS applications (Câmara, Souza et al. 2000)[93]. As a research tool, TerraLib aims to enable GIS prototypes that would include recent advances in GIS. TerraLib also supports custom-built applications using spatial databases. The main driving forces are the National Institute for Space Research (INPE) - which has a mission to develop science, technology and applications for space-related fields - and the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-RIO - home to one of Brazil's leading research groups in Computer Science).. . The TerraLib project came out of the need to offer Brazilian users an alternative to commercial GIS software. The software has functionalities for spatio-temporal data handling that are not available in any commercial or open source GIS software. Starting in 2001, INPE and PUC-RIO invested more than 50 person-years of programming effort in TerraLib.

The TerraLib project started as a research initiative to provide an innovative environment for GIS applications and have a Low-Low classification: low shared conceptualization and low modularity according to Camara and Fonseca's open source software (OSS) typology (Câmara and Fonseca 2007)[94]. Camara and Fonseca (ibid.) claim OSS projects have four different stages, varying from low to high potential for shared conceptualization and from low to high potential for modularity. Besides the low-low, OSS projects can also be High-High, with a high shared conceptualization and high modularity; High-Low, with a high shared conceptualization and low modularity; and Low-High, with a low shared conceptualization and high modularity.

The project got started with funding from the Brazilian Science foundation, CNPq. However, when the project was considered mature enough for a production release, a strategy was devised to move the project to a more sustainable situation. INPE and PUC-RIO considered two alternatives to move the TerraLib project out of the "low-low" quadrant. The first was to move the project into the "low-high" quadrant (low shared conceptualization, high modularity) and the second to move the project into the "high-low" quadrant (high shared conceptualization, low modularity). The transition of TerraLib to the "low-high" quadrant was considered difficult because of the nature of the geo-information technology. A typical GIS application consists of a core of functions that access a spatial database and a set of customized user interfaces that fit the user's needs. These user interfaces are difficult to share, since each application (e.g. an urban cadastre in a municipality) has specific requirements. In fact, the customization of a core library of functions is a task carried out by service companies. The kernel of these GIS applications is a tightly integrated set of functions that are best maintained by a small team of skilled programmers.

INPE and PUC-RIO therefore chose to transition TerraLib to the "high-low" quadrant. The Brazilian government continues to support the core team of developers and has provided additional support for building a shared conceptualization of the product. These resources have been assigned mainly for two tasks: capacity building for commercial and public users and direct support for service companies that use the software. INPE and PUC-RIO have invested heavily in user documentation and direct contact with commercial companies that could use the library for providing value-added services to the GIS market. There is evidence to suggest this strategy is paying off: In early 2006, more than 10 private companies in Brazil developed products using TerraLib. Since then, the number of downloads of TerraLib and of TerraView (the viewing and analysis tool developed on top of TerraLib) has been steadily increasing (see Table 4.11).

  2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 (up to October) Total
TerraLib 7,944 9,747 8,935 9,195 7,301 6,563 49,685
TerraView 0 7,636 9,726 12,591 14,182 12,238 56,373

Table 4.11: Number of downloads per year by registered users of TerraLib and TerraView

Source: INPE, TerraLib team[95]

One of the important decisions on the TerraLib project was to decide on its open source license. There is a strong debate on which software distribution policy governments should take on publicly funded software. In TerraLib's case, the decision considered the characteristics of the GIS market. The GIS software market is an oligopoly in which two companies (ESRI and Intergraph) have a market share of 50% (Daratech 2003)[96].There is therefore a "lock-in" effect in the users' choice of products (Arthur 1994)[97]. INPE considered that there should be a strong incentive for commercial companies to use TerraLib to reduce these "lock-in" effects. Therefore, TerraLib was released as open source according to the LGPL (Lesser GNU Public License). The LGPL allows private companies to build their applications on top of OSS and market them as proprietary software. There is evidence to suggest that the use of TerraLib-based products has decreased the "lock-in" effect as a result of a suitable licensing policy.

Since the beginning of the Korean NGIS project in 1995, using foreign GIS software such as ESRI's ArcGIS products, Laser-Scan's Gothic products, Microstation and Smallworld, GIS applications have been developed in South Korea. From the early 2000s, native Korean GIS software engines such as IntroMap, GeoMania, GeoGate and XWorld have begun to be released and used to build GIS applications. Nevertheless, the foreign GIS Software market share has been estimated at over 90 percent in the public sector, while native GIS software market share remained small, so far[98].

Despite these respective market shares, in order to build competitiveness new GIS, LBS and Ubi-GIS software is currently undergoing development, For example, KAIT's[99] 2009 IT markets analysis report forecasted that the South Korean domestic LBS market growth rate would be on average over 41 per cent from 2008 to 2011[100].

A significant effort is being made to develop future intelligent and advanced software technologies and to use spatial information widely. As a representative effort, the Korean Land Spatialization research project, one of the 3rd stage NGIS projects, is the biggest research project among R&D projects of its kind and has attracted around US$97million in funding from the Korean government over a five year period to 2012. Specifically, this funding will be used for using RFID, integration of space based sensor collected information, facilitating a shift towards GI on mobile and ubiquitous devices and real time location information. The Korean Land Spatialization Group (KLSG) has conducted the research on intelligent Land informatization based on GIS technology and developed new software for the future knowledge-oriented society[101]. With a new paradigm for changing the future, under the 5 core projects including those for geospatial information infrastructure, land monitoring, intelligent urban facility management, design information based indoor-outdoor spatial information & application technology development and for u-GIS core SW technology, many specific R&D projects are completed and now up and running. Among them, u-GIS core SW technology, geospatial web platform technologies (which are also being used for web2.0 and advanced geospatial technology environments such as Google and Bing maps) are being developed for on-demand personalized spatial information.

With regard to network services, South Korea is one of most progressive IT countries in the world. According to the OECD, in 2009 Korea was ranked highest in the world (in selected OCD countries) for households with access to the Internet[102]. Korea also has the highest Internet penetration rate at over 80 per cent all of households, indicating an established and widespread digital economy and thus significant opportunities for SDI development. This means that Korean national information and telecommunication infrastructures including broadband, mobile and wireless service infrastructures have supported access to national GI anywhere and anytime. And now, with ubiquitous sensor networks, Korean u-Cities are good examples of ubiGI.

International Development Agencies and Programmes

Getting Going: Priority Steps

This chapter has considered various SDI components and issues for consideration through the examples of relevant SDI models, i.e. Korea and Brazil. Having done this it is deemed useful at this point to provide further, more specific guidance in the form of possible starting points for countries at the beginning of their national SDI development program. This section of the manual therefore now suggests a series of 'priority steps' or strategies for 'getting going' on a national SDI. The Manual does this here through three sets of information. Firstly, a series of strategies proposed from the perspective and experience of SDI development in Korea; Secondly, an action plan for human resource development (HRD) and capacity building in Jordan and thirdly, through reference to a proposed implementation manual for SDI development in Uganda which is annexed in full in Annex xx. Each of these proposals is presented here as a possible tool for SDI development in developing countries, perhaps according to that country's stage of economic or SDI development [as determined by identification with each of the case study countries].

Strategies from Korea
  • Strategies for geospatial data

Like NGII's digital topographical map at 1:1,000 scale, which covers almost all of the countries in the Korean SDI, high quality geospatial data facilitates successful SDI implementation. However, creating a digital topographical map database is also likely to be an expensive task that takes place over a relatively long period of time. Using new technologies, strategies for geospatial data for developing countries can be proposed to exploit alternative information sources such as remotely sensed data in addition to conventional survey technologies. For example, Openstreetmap which is a wiki-style VGI (Volunteered Geographic Information) map using various mapping techniques (including remote mapping and sketching over aerial imagery with GPS units) can be a possible way to quickly build a basic map. A great deal can be done in this way without incurring the delays that are inevitably associated with conventional data base creation.

Also, the Korean experience of processing further NGIS projects suggests that not only building geospatial data, but also maintaining it for sharing and using data is also extremely important. In this context, it is more important to make data interoperable for data sharing and using. Thus, to build and share geospatial data, information and services efficiently, standardization is a prerequisite. GIS standards for interoperability of geospatial data and services should be developed by meeting the consensus of stakeholders.

With regard to funding, the co-funding model (i.e. building topographical maps with central and local governments) in South Korea is a good reference point for developing countries which have insufficient budgets, using international funding.

  • Strategies for GI capacity building

Due to poor human resources, misunderstandings or lack of technological experience in developing countries, strategies for GI capacity building are also a priority. SDIs are likely to be most successful in maximising the use that is made of local and national geographic information assets in situations where the capacity exists to exploit its potential. This is particularly important in developing countries where the implementation of SDI initiatives is often dependent on a limited number of staff with necessary geographic information management skills. It must also be recognized that there is still a great deal to be done to develop GIS capabilities, particularly at the local level. GIS capability building can be considered in the adoption and vitalization of VGI concepts for future SDI development.

  • Strategies for GI portal enabling access platforms

Without enabling access platforms and appropriate metadata services which help them to locate this information it is unlikely that a SDI will be able to achieve its overarching objective of promoting greater use of geographic information. There is also a very practical reason the development of metadata services should be given a high priority in the implementation of a SDI: Metadata services can be developed relatively quickly and at a relatively low cost. In this respect they can be regarded as a potential quick winner which demonstrates tangible benefits for those involved in SDI development. The establishment of Web based metadata services provides information to users about the data that is available to meet their needs. It is also one of the most obvious SDI success stories. In recent years the development of spatial portals has opened up new possibilities for metadata and application services. As their name suggests, spatial portals can be seen as gateways to geographic information resources. As such they provide points of entry to SDIs and help users around the world to find and connect to many rich GI resources. These portals also allow GI users and providers to share the contents and create a consensus. Also, Integration and linkage of e-government and NSDI should have been done from the beginning to avoid duplication of efforts for better citizen spatial services. Furthermore, in the context of recent trends toward vitalization with adoption of the VGI concept, poor knowledge of data availability should be improved and access of spatial data extended.

  • Strategies for cost-effective management of GI with strong leadership and partnership

Strong government leadership and organizational partnerships have been evaluated as a primary drive to successful NSDI. To pursue a more powerful organizational partnership, more efficient institutional reorganization and regulations are required. Since the South Korean SDI case reveals that strong NSDI leadership by the central government is a very important drive for successful SDI implementation at the beginning, this is also needed for SDI in developing countries. SDI coordinating bodies should play a key role. Akin to the "National Spatial Data Committee" in South Korea, an interagency committee to deliberate on and coordinate matters concerning national spatial data policy to promote the coordinated development, use, sharing and dissemination of geospatial data and services, is necessary. Also, legislation for the NSDI at a national and local level is required for SDI in order to understand the importance of SDI and to encourage technological understanding.

Action Plan for the Jordanian SDI including for HRD

The following action plan summarises and is indicative of what can be found in the Implementation Manual for HRD and Training, the full content of which can be found in Annex xx.. The action plan consists of four main stages, each of which is then broken down into a series of steps. The four stages are as follows:

Stage 1: colspan = "2"|SDI Consensus Building and confirmation of SDI institutional foundations, and raising awareness; Stage 2: colspan = "2"|HRD and capacity building and Training coupled with Data policy and management; Stage 3:   Technical elements including networks; Stage 4: colspan = "2"|SDI consolidation and operations maintenance.

Stage One: SDI Consensus Building and confirmation of SDI institutional foundations, and raising awareness

This stage proposes further SDI awareness building and confirmation of principles and understandings plus consensus building among the core stakeholders of the Government of Jordan, starting with the current Prime Minister's National GIS committee as appointed in 2006 and 2009. The steps in Stage One should include:

1. Reaffirmation and confirmation of the key roles of several key stakeholders (including MoICT, DLS, GAM, RJGC) as the coordinators of the SDI.

2. Agree on the new JSDI Board membership and its new members plus the role of MoICT and the possible joint leadership with DLS, RJGC and GAM; the Board is proposed to become independent of the GIS Committee originally appointed in 2006 for the BearingPoint study.

3. Define the working group tasks and priorities and develop the ToRs and their provisional membership, initially focusing on data management, institutions and HRD groups. Three months later establish a further three groups including institutions and technical infrastructure groups;

4. Under open competition select the advisers for the proposed SDI secretariat after writing the TORs for national consultants in support of the SDI Board and committees and working group.

5. Start up the HRD program initially focusing on (i) SDI for decision makers, and (ii) professional development for existing staff in the core agencies and SDI for GIS professionals and SDI for non GOS professionals. Initially the training would involve using the established GIS training courses available in Jordan especially at Jordan University, GAM, JUST, Ai, DSL.

6. Undertake a national inventory of geospatial assets (data, expertise, equipment, etc.) supported by the data management working group. This is an opportunity to train people on ISO19115/19123 and metadata principles and also to build a national metadata repository.

7. Begin capacity building for SDI especially within DSL and RJGC, with a particular focus on reviewing the financial aspects of both institutions looking at the potential for operating in the manner of a cost recovery agency.

8. Develop and promulgate a list of desired fundamental or core datasets and the associated responsible custodian agencies[103].

9. Undertake a gap analysis between steps 8 and 6 above: step 6 is what is available and 8 is what is needed to be done. Therefore to determine what is missing and what investments are needed, a data procurement plan would be needed with dates, costing and responsibilities.

10. Pursue the policy of making GIS data easy, efficient and equitable to access and affordable by all users. In doing this, establish a transparent pricing policy for the purchase and/or exchange of core data and other data sets and on-going up-dates by SDI stakeholders and civil society groups, firms and individuals. The policy might differentiate between institutions that do not / cannot generate and retain fee income and those that do. This action is related to action No. 11.

11. Commission 'a preliminary strategic development plan for the JSDI, especially focusing on the business aspects of SDI, determine the 'business drivers' of SDI and the options for financing JSDI also considering related existing budgets and financing short falls.

12. Explore TA and training possibilities for JSDI. Begin by requesting the SDI leadership to approach GoJ through MoPIC for TA and HRD support for SDI development from an international donor. (Sweden, Netherlands, Germany (GTZ, KfW), CIDA, SIDA, Japan, China, Norway). The leadership could also informally approach the national SDI of those countries to request support for technical infrastructure design, geodetic datum and projection, TA and training, data issues including support for fundamental or core datasets.

13. Explore what products could be quickly delivered by JSDI, for example, a geoportal of available data sets. There needs to be a clear, specific application area that will encourage all stakeholders to take action, whether this is water resource management, healthcare, education, land administration, energy or tourism, etc..

14. Data management and legislation working groups should be commissioned to work with appropriate consultants, the Secretariat and stakeholders and NGOs. One of the focuses would be to develop SDI legislative principles.

15. Objectively review the Jordan geodetic datum and map projection issue and make definitive recommendations. Include GCE in the team.

16. Form priority working groups -- policy and research, technical infrastructure, HRD,   also a cross - W/G to work on SDI legislative principles.

17. Employ local consultants for the secretariat.

 Stage 2: HRD and capacity building and Training coupled with Data policy and management

1. To ensure a common and shared level of understanding about SDI, hold a one day national SDI familiarization/sensitization workshop for all stakeholders. A half-day plenary session would introduce all stakeholders to the notion of an SDI, covering the value proposition, benefits, key ingredients, process, and risks, and would draw from international case studies. The remaining half-day would offer one of two tracks: (1) a session covering SDI from the perspective of consumers, emphasizing how to leverage the SDI; and (2) the other session focusing on SDI from the perspective of producers/publishers of spatial data into the SDI, examining how the JSDI could be architected and implemented.

2. Continuing to build capacity: start up the HRD program initially focusing on (i) SDI for decision makers, (ii) professional development for existing staff in the core agencies, and (iii) SDI for GIS professionals and SDI for non GIS professionals. Initially the training would involve using the established GIS training courses available in Jordan especially at Jordan University, GAM, JUST, Ai, DSL. These courses would have to be developed with inputs from a SDI specialist on a 'train the trainers' basis.

3. Task the HRD Working Group to address recommendations 2 - 9 inclusive and recommendation 14 in section 3.4 above (Human Resource Capacity Development). It would be an asset if the consultant HRD specialist was available to work with the HRD Working Group.

Stage 3: Technical elements including data and networks

Stage 4: SDI operations maintenance and consolidation

Implementation manual for SDI development in Uganda

Footnotes

  1. http://ecos.bok.or.kr
  2. Compare, if reunified, Korean Peninsula total area would be 223,170 km2, total population 2010 estimate 73,000,000. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korea) , http://www.index.go.kr
  3. See section World Bank SDI Report - Worldwide SDI Development and Outreach#National Integrated (Spatial) Information System (NIIS)
  4. MIC (2006) “u-KOREA Master Plan to Achieve the World’s First Ubiquitous Society”. For further information and analysis of u-Cities see: Jackson, M., Gardner, Z. and Wainwright, T., 2010, ‘Location Awareness and Ubiquitous Cities’, CGS Report series, Centre for Geospatial Science, University of Nottingham. See http://elogeo.nottingham.ac.uk/xmlui/handle/url/59.
  5. For example Songdo New City, Dongtan (in Hwaseong) and Daejeon.
  6. Arthur, B. (1994). Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy. Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Press., Mowery, D., Ed. (1996). The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Evolution of Industry Evolution and Structure. New York, NY, Oxford University Press.
  7. Magalhaes, G. and E. Granemman (2005). A Survey of Geospatial Market in Brazil. São Paulo, GITA Brasil: unpublished work.
  8. INPE established its Image Processing Division in 1984 with the following aims: (a) Local development and dissemination of image processing and GIS systems in Brazil; (b) Establishment of a research program in Image Processing and GIS; and (c) Pursuit of cooperative programs with universities, government organizations and private companies. In 1986, INPE brought out Brazil’s first GIS based on an Intel platform, which was later used extensively by 150 universities and research labs up to 1996. In 1992, given recent advances in hardware and software and the changes in information technology policy in Brazil, INPE started the development of a free GIS software, SPRING, first Web version of which was made available in late 1996. SPRING provides a comprehensive set of functions for processing of spatial information, including tools for Satellite Image Processing, Digital Terrain Modeling, Spatial Analysis, Geostatistics, Spatial Statistics, Spatial Databases and Map Management. Currently, in a partnership with the Catholic University in Rio de Janeiro, INPE is developing TerraLib Câmara, G., R. Souza, et al. (2000). TerraLib: Technology in Support of GIS Innovation. II Brazilian Symposium on Geoinformatics, GeoInfo2000, São Paulo., an open-source GIS component library which enables quick development of custom-built applications using spatial databases. See www. terralib.org for further details.
  9. PRODABEL is Belo Horizonte’s IT company. Belo Horizonte is the fourth largest Brazilian city, with a population of more than 2.2 million people, spread over 335 square kilometres and is the centre of a metropolitan area that houses over 3.5 million people. Belo Horizonte’s GIS project, which started in 1989, was managed by PRODABEL. An interesting fact was that PRODABEL also hosted the city’s cadastre cartographical services. The main efforts were towards creating the geographic database, the development of the necessary human resources, and the search for partnerships within the city. In the long run, the project became a reference for urban GIS in Brazil. Its team grew out to be participating in the local government activities and today play a major role in the Brazilian scientific community. The project architecture started with a centralized effort and later moved to a decentralized service structure. The GIS project for the city of Belo Horizonte has received national and international recognition for providing applications that deal with important social needs, including education, health, transportation, and environmental control. The results also include over 200 publications including theses, academic papers and articles in trade magazines written by PRODABEL researchers Davis Jr., C. A. (1993). Address Base Creation Using Raster-Vector Integration. URISA 1993 Annual Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, URISA., Fonseca, F. (1993). GIS for a Two-Million People City in Three Years. URISA 1993 Annual Conference, Atlanta, Georgia, URISA., Borges, K. A. V. and S. Sahay (2000). Learning About GIS Implementation from a Public Sector GIS Experience in Brazil. IFIP 9.4, Working Group on Social Implications of Computers in Developing Countries, Cape Town, South Africa.
  10. FatorGIS started out in 1993 publishing a small magazine on GIS. From the magazine, FatorGIS started a very successful user-conference series called GIS-Brasil, holding annual meetings till 2004. The company went through some changes in 1999 which led to an online publication replacing the original paper magazine. It generated also a spin-off called MundoGeo which has a portal, a magazine, and its own user-conference series, GeoBrasil, which has been held annually since 2000.
  11. Câmara, G., U. Freitas, et al. (1994). A Model to Cultivate Objects and Manipulate Fields. Second ACM Workshop on Geographic Information Systems, Gaithersburg, MD, ACM Press., Câmara, G., M. Casanova, et al. (1996). "Anatomia de Sistemas de Informação Geográfica (Anatomy of Geographical Information Systems)." from http://www.dpi.inpe.br/gilberto.
  12. Assad, E. D. and E. Sano, Eds. (1998). Sistemas de informações geográficas: Aplicações na Agricultura (Geographical Information Systems: Agricultural Applications). Brasilia, EMBRAPA.
  13. Fileto, R., C. B. Medeiros, et al. (2003). Using domain ontologies to help track data provenance. XVIII Brazilian Database Symposium, Porto Alegre, SBC.
  14. Câmara, G., R. Souza, et al. (1996). "SPRING: Integrating Remote Sensing and GIS with Object-Oriented Data Modelling." Computers and Graphics 15(6): 13-22.
  15. http://www.ibge.gov.br/home/popup_popclock.htm shows a population “clock”, an up-to-the-minute Brazilian population estimate.
  16. The World Bank (2010). Gross Domestic Product 2009 (PPP).
  17. The World Bank (2009). Brazil at a Glance, The World Bank.
  18. UNDP (2010). Human Development Report (Summary): Overcoming Barriers: human mobility and development, United Nations Development Programme.
  19. FAO (2010). FAOStat (online database), U. N. Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).
    http://faostat.fao.org/site/342/default.aspx
  20. ANFAVEA (2010). Anuário da Indústria Automobilística Brasileira 2010, Associação Nacional dos Fabricantes de Veículos Automotores (ANFAVEA).
  21. MC (2010). Um Plano Nacional para Banda Larga -- Resumo Executivo, Ministério das Comunicações (MC).
  22. The World Bank (2009). Brazil at a Glance, The World Bank
  23. Clarke et al., 1999
  24. See Post, Gerry et el. (April, 2006) "State of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Report - 2006", Ministry of Information and Communications Technology, Amman Jordan
  25. There can be different perspectives between top down and bottom up approach. According to “FIG Views of GIS and NSDI ”, NSDI can proceed even if a formal policy document [top down approach] does not exist. It is possible to proceed with certain operational level activities [bottom up approach] while the policy is being formulated. These activities can themselves drive and encourage policy. In this context, South Korean NSDI can be mainly considered to result from a top down approach with a formal policy document, such as NGIS master plans and related legislation.
  26. MLTM (2010). The 4th-phase National GIS Comprehensive implementation plan (2010-2015).
  27. CONCAR (2010). Plano de Ação para Implantação da Infraestrutura Nacional de Dados Espaciais (INDE). O. e. G. Ministério do Planejamento. Brasília: 230p. (In portuguese).
  28. In the context of “the Act on National Geospatial Information” there are 2 Presidential decrees and 1 Ministry Regulation. “Presidential decree on National Geospatial Information [Presidential decree No 21881, on December.14, 2009 implemented],” “Presidential decree on National Geospatial Information Center [Presidential decree No 21984, on January.7, 2010 implemented]” and “Regulation on Geospatial Information Reference System [MLTM regulation No 240, on April.3, 2010 implemented]”have enforced by the Ministry of Land, Transport and Maritime Affairs (MLTM).
  29. Also, “Presidential decree on Promotion of Spatial Information Industry [Presidential decree No 21881, on December14, 2009 implemented.]” and “Regulation on Promotion of Spatial Information Industry [MLTM regulation No 155 on August.7, 2009 implemented]” are in context of the Act on Promotion of Spatial Information Industry..
  30. NGII, “ Study on digital topological map at 1:2500 scale”, 2010
  31. http://www.kt.com/
  32. http://www.kogas.or.kr/
  33. http://www.dopco.co.kr/
  34. http://www.kepco.co.kr
  35. http://www.kdhc.co.kr
  36. http://www.kasm.or.kr
  37. The Association has been entitled by the government to assess the public surveying results and to manage the career of engineers (entitled by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation according to Article 61 of the Survey Law)
  38. http://www.giscorea.com
  39. http://www.kagis.or.kr
  40. http://www.ksrs.or.kr
  41. The absence among these representations of the Ministry of Social Development and Fight against Hunger (MDS), one of the main organizations behind the Brazilian effort towards achieving the millennium development goals, is notable.
  42. Magalhaes, G. and E. Granemman (2005). A Survey of Geospatial Market in Brazil. São Paulo, GITA Brasil: unpublished work.
  43. See http://www.inde.gov.br
  44. See http://mapas.mma.gov.br/geonetwork/srv/br/main.home
  45. See http://geobank.sa.cprm.gov.br
  46. See http://www.metadados.geo.ibge.gov.br/geonetwork/srv/br/main.home
  47. Kintisch, E. (2007). "Carbon emissions: improved monitoring of rainforests helps pierce haze of deforestation." Science 316(5824): 536-537.
  48. This figure is not a true geographical representation as most broadband connections are concentrated in São Paulo state.
  49. http://ngic.go.kr/index.jsp
  50. http://ngis.go.kr/pgis/
  51. http://ngis.go.kr/sgis/
  52. http://ngis.go.kr/egis/
  53. http://ngis.go.kr/cgis/
  54. http://geoidc.kict.re.kr
  55. http://www.mgis.go.kr/
  56. Source: http://www.ngic.go.kr/index.jsp
  57. EU DIRECTIVE establishing an Infrastructure for Spatial Information in the European Community (INSPIRE, 2007)
  58. Akin to data.gov in USA and data.gov.uk in U.K
  59. Source: http://elaw.klri.re.kr/
  60. CONCAR (2009). Perfil de Metadados Geoespaciais do Brasil (MGB), Comissão Nacional de Cartografia (CONCAR),: 194p.
  61. http://www.governoeletronico.gov.br/acoes-e-projetos/e-ping-padroes-de-interoperabilidade
  62. http://catalogo.governoeletronico.gov.br/
  63. http://www.governoeletronico.gov.br/acoes-e-projetos/e-ping-padroes-de-interoperabilidade/padrao-de-metadados-do-governo-eletronico-e-pmg
  64. CEGE (2009). e-Ping - Padrões de Interoperabilidade de Governo Eletrônico. C. E. d. G. E. (CEGE). Brasília (DF): 57p. (In Portuguese).
  65. Ibid.
  66. http://www.tta.or.kr/
  67. http://www.standard.go.kr/
  68. See, for instance, Fortes, L. P. S. Status of Spatial Data Infrastructure Construction for Brazil. Presentation in GSDI-10, St. Augustine, Trinidad, Feb. 2008, available at http://www.gsdidocs.org/gsdiconf/GSDI-10/slides/TS11.5.pdf
  69. Crompvoets, J., A. Bregt, et al. (2004). "Assessing the worldwide developments of national spatial data clearinghouses." International Journal of Geographic Information Science 18(7): 665-689., Crompvoets, J. and A. Bregt (2006). Worldwide Developments of National Spatial Data Clearinghouses. 9th International Conference on Global Spatial Data Infrastructure, Santiago, Chile.
  70. Onsrud, H. (1998). "Survey of national and regional spatial data infrastructure activities around the globe." Proceedings of Selected Conference Papers of the Third Global Spatial Data Infrastructure Conference.
  71. http://www.inde.gov.br/?p=762
  72. To establish an Asian/Pacific network to maximize the economic value of geographic information
  73. Shares information and technology on map creation to solve global environmental issues
  74. International cooperation on aerial photograph surveys and remote sensing exploration
  75. To share information on map creation technology between member nations
  76. A UN Group of Experts on Geographical Names
  77. Map creating technology sharing and support among nations
  78. For information sharing and mutual cooperation between national survey organizations
  79. International Organization for Standardization, Technical Committee to establish international standards on geographic information
  80. Open GIS Consortium to establish universal technological standards on geographic information processing
  81. http://www.koica.go.kr
  82. CONCAR (2010). Plano de Ação para Implantação da Infraestrutura Nacional de Dados Espaciais (INDE). O. e. G. Ministério do Planejamento. Brasília: 230p. (In portuguese).
  83. Davis Jr., C. A. (1995). Commercialization of Geographic Information (In Portuguese). Revista FatorGIS, Ed. FatorGIS. 3(10): 45.
  84. Kintisch, E. (2007). "Carbon emissions: improved monitoring of rainforests helps pierce haze of deforestation." Science 316(5824): 536-537.
  85. Editorial, in Nature 452(7184), 13 March 2008. Available at http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v452/n7184/full/452127b.html, last access Feb 11 2011.
  86. Myung-Hee Jo, Kwang Ju Kim, Sang-Woo Park, “Benefit-Cost Analysis of GIS in Local Governments: A Case Study of Taegu Metropolitan City”, 1999
  87. Incheon, “A Study on Benefit Cost Analysis of UIS,” 2001
  88. Kwang Ju Kim, “A Study on Benefit Cost Analysis of Chungju UIS,” 2003
  89. Source: http://www.inep.gov.br/superior/censosuperior/sinopse/default.asp
  90. CONCAR (2010). Plano de Ação para Implantação da Infraestrutura Nacional de Dados Espaciais (INDE). O. e. G. Ministério do Planejamento. Brasília: 230p. (In portuguese).
  91. http://www.softwarelivre.gov.br
  92. http://www.softwarepublico.gov.br
  93. Available at http://www.terralib.org
  94. Câmara, G. and F. T. Fonseca (2007). "Information Policies and Open Source Software in Developing Countries." Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology 12(4): 255-272.
  95. Note 1: includes downloads from Brazil and various other countries (China, USA, India, Italy, Germany, France, Portugal, Canada, Argentina, Spain, Mexico and others) Note 2: Brazilian downloads account for about 13% of TerraLib and 48% of TerraView downloads
  96. Daratech (2003). GIS Markets and Opportunities 2003 Survey. Cambridge, MA, Daratech Inc.
  97. Arthur, B. (1994). Increasing Returns and Path Dependence in the Economy. Ann Arbor, MI, The University of Michigan Press., Mowery, D., Ed. (1996). The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Evolution of Industry Evolution and Structure. New York, NY, Oxford University Press.
  98. KIPA: The Korea Institute of Public Administration, KIPA, “Trend of GIS Software Market ”, 2006
  99. KAIT: Korea Association of Information and Telecommunication
  100. http://www.lbskorea.or.kr
  101. http://intelligentkorea.com/
  102. OECD, “Households with access to the Internet”, 2009. Available at http://www.oecd.org/document/23/0,3746,en_2649_34449_33987543_1_1_1_1,00.html
  103. For an example see: ECA/ISTD/GEO/2007/02E, Fundamental Datasets for Africa Determination of Geoinformation in Socio-Economic Development Table 8, page 38. Available at http://www.uneca.org/istd/geoinfo/Geoinformation_socio_Economic_Dev-en.pdf
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